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Visual problems and poor eyesight are a problem that is increasing each day. How many types of eye diseases are there? In the healthy eye, there is a lively metabolism in the macula, through which the visual cells are supplied with nutrients. With age, usually from the age of 50, there may be disturbances: deposits then form under the retina, the visual cells slowly die. These symptoms are called age-related macular degeneration, or AMD for short.

A panel of optometrist Sydney gave the details about the different diseases that affect our vision. The medical language is filled with technical terms and words like myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, astigmatism, glaucoma and much more. Let us discuss these ailments in detail to understand the symptoms.


Myopia is poor eyesight. The medical term for this is myopia. Nearsighted people can see nearby objects perfectly, but distant ones only blurred. This is due to the somewhat inaccurate construction of the eye: Normally, the light rays coming from a distance give a sharp image in the eye exactly on the retina. In the case of short-sighted people, on the other hand, the light rays are combined in front of the retina, the image on the retina becomes blurred. The eye of a nearsighted person is no worse than that of a normally sighted person - the eyeball is only too long. Poor eyesight can usually be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.


The poor eyesight farsightedness also means clarity, in the technical language hyperopia or hypermetropia. A weakly far-sighted person can see clearly in the distance but has problems with clear vision nearby. This poor eyesight is particularly noticeable when reading, but also when cooking, doing computer work or doing DIY. The cause is a somewhat short eyeball - the incoming light rays do not come together to form an image on the retina. Without correction, they theoretically only meet behind the retina. A young, farsighted person can still see sharply at a young age since the eye compensates for the clarity by increasing the curvature of the eye lens. With age, this ability diminishes, the lens becomes less elastic, and glasses become necessary. How does this visual impairment become noticeable? The first symptoms are tension or pressure in the area of ​​the nasal root/temple or headache after long reading. Farsightedness is often a cause of squinting in children. The poor eyesight farsightedness can be corrected well with glasses or contact lenses.

Farsightedness in children

Most children are born with farsightedness. This is harmless because the children can compensate for the farsightedness with their very flexible eye lens. By the age of 6, this farsightedness usually disappears on its own. Strong farsightedness or a different degree of ametropia in both eyes must be corrected as early as possible. If left untreated, poorly fixed pupils (amblyopia) or manifest squint can develop.


Vision problems with increasing age are not unusual. Contrary to farsightedness, presbyopia in old age (in technical terms) is not the result of an eyeball that is too short but is caused by the natural aging process. From the age of 40 to 45, the eye lens and the ring muscle of the eye lose their elasticity. Focusing becomes more difficult, and reaching for reading glasses becomes mandatory. The poor eyesight worsens over the years so that eventually you need compensation even for medium distances


Corneal curvature - also called nearsightedness or astigmatism - can occur together with nearsightedness or with far-sightedness and also as an independent ametropia. A rod-sighted eye does not recognize a circular point as such but slightly distorted as an ellipse or rod. The reason: the corneal curvature is uneven, and the incident image is unclear. However, the brain corrects this visual impression automatically, so that this is not consciously noticed in everyday life. Seeing only generally appears less clear. This visual defect can be corrected with glasses or contact lenses, and surgical procedures are also possible.


Cataracts are a clouding of the lens of the eye. It seems like you are looking through a frosted glass pane so that everything looks foggy and colors blur to gray. The loss of vision occurs slowly, without the person suffering from pain. At the beginning of poor eyesight, you often become a little short-sighted, so you need to see the optician more often. In the long term, those affected cannot avoid surgery. The lens is removed and replaced with a plastic lens. Existing myopia or farsightedness can also be compensated for during the operation.


Glaucoma is a disease in which the retinal nerve cells die. The pressure inside the eye is often increased in glaucoma. If left untreated, the disease leads to blindness. As the disease progresses slowly, the affected person has difficulty noticing the gradually intensifying tunnel vision. Detected early, glaucoma eye disease can usually be stopped with medication. That is why regular examinations at the ophthalmologist are important.


Not everyone can look straight ahead! If you squint, you cannot align the direction of your two eyes parallel to each other. Squinting (strabismus) is not something which should be taken lightly. With accompanying visual disturbances, it is a real visual impairment.

The sooner squint is detected in a child, the more successfully it can be treated. This is usually done with specially adapted glasses, with prism lenses, by occlusion (masking an eye) or an operative correction.


This eye disease name is by no means harmless. The "flying flies" or "flying mosquitoes", according to the translation, are shown, for example, by black dots, spots or thread-like structures in the visual field. These visual disturbances are often caused by liquefaction of the vitreous or detachment of the vitreous from the retina. There are no established procedures to treat the disease. Recently, some ophthalmologists have been using non-invasive treatment - so-called laser vitreolysis.


The macula, also known as the yellow spot, lies in the middle of the retina and is the place of sharpest vision. This approximately three to five-millimeter large area is responsible for the essential visual performance. It enables us to read, to recognize faces and fine details and to distinguish colors. The entire remaining retina mainly perceives only outlines, light-dark contrasts and movements.


The sooner you understand the symptoms, the better. Do not be hasty in administering a medication yourself. Consult an optometrist to see if your eyes are weak and ask them to assign a correction lens. Avoid going into intense sunlight as excessive solar radiation adversely affects the retina. We feel discomfort, and after even a headache. In winter, ophthalmologists also recommend wearing glasses. They protect from blindingly shiny snow.

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