It is necessary to protect all surfaces and structures that can somehow come into contact with water. In a house, this needs to be done in the foundation, basement and roof. Inside a house or apartment, it is needed in the bathroom and the kitchen, where leaks and overflowing of water are possible. Inside the house, the heater must be protected from condensation or precipitation. Please note that it is necessary to protect from water not only where its penetration is possible, but also where washing or condensate water can adversely affect the material of the structure.
For this, there are various types of waterproofing like superseal waterproofing, which differ in purpose, place of use, as well as materials. Over the past decades, the market for waterproofing materials has expanded significantly, completely innovative solutions have appeared, but also the old ways of protecting against water have not been forgotten.
Among all the variety, it’s not difficult to get lost. To facilitate an understanding of what type of waterproofing is right for you, we will try to classify all types, and also indicate their purpose, the pros and cons of technology and installation features.
Types of waterproofing
There are several classifications of waterproofing technologies: by the method of arrangement, by the main purpose, by the name of the materials used, as well as by the place and time of application.
At the place of use, there is internal and external waterproofing.
Internal waterproofing is a set of measures for protection against water that is carried out indoors, for example, waterproofing walls and floors in a bathroom.
External waterproofing is performed outside the structure, for example, protecting the foundation from groundwater or protecting the roof.
According to the time of application, primary and secondary waterproofing are distinguished.
Primary waterproofing of structures is carried out immediately at the construction stage of the facility.
The secondary waterproofing is repair measures. For example, if due to old age or for another reason, the primary waterproofing is damaged and does not cope with its task, then a set of measures for secondary waterproofing is carried out. In this case, the old coating is removed, the surface is thoroughly cleaned, and a new waterproofing layer is applied. It is also possible to apply a new layer on top of the old one, but this is not recommended.
Coating waterproofing is a surface coating with various mastics, one-component or two-component elastic compounds with a thickness of 2 mm to 5-6 cm.
It is used for external waterproofing of a building-foundation treatment for protection against groundwater, flat roof treatment for protection against rainfall. It is also used for internal waterproofing-treatment of basement walls, treatment of the floor and walls of the bathroom. Using coating waterproofing, cracks in the walls are closed. It is enough to recall how the waterproofing of panel houses occurs. From the side, they look like boxes lined into rectangles.
Bitumen becomes brittle at temperatures below 0 ° C and loses elasticity. Any deformation during the period of negative temperatures will inevitably lead to the appearance of cracks and tears, and over time, the material will detach from the surface. The service life of waterproofing from bitumen is 5-6 years. Sometimes even 3-4 winter cycles are enough for the material to fail.
Working with hot bitumen is dangerous.
Careful surface preparation is required. It is necessary to clean the surface of the base from dust, debris and buildup of mortar, close up all cracks, potholes and sinks.
Work can only be done in dry weather - the concrete must be dry.
High-quality primer treatment is required.
It is necessary to protect the waterproofing surface from possible mechanical influences - punctures and damage.
The restoration of coating waterproofing due to damage can cost 3-4 times more than the initial application.
You can use coating waterproofing only when the likelihood of leaks is already low. For example, if the groundwater level is low, then you can cover the foundation walls with bitumen, make drainage around the structure and drain rainwater. The use of coating waterproofing on the roof is no longer relevant, since bitumen is cracking in frosts, and the ice breaks in it with its sharp edges. As a result, by spring, the surface is not tight.
Please note that polymer resins, bitumen-polymer and bitumen-rubber mastics, which can be applied cold, have appeared on the market. This method of application is simpler and faster than hot. But the disadvantage of polymer mastics is the same instability to deformations. Any vibration and mechanical stress will cause cracks and tears.
Paint waterproofing involves applying mastics in liquid form with a layer of 3 - 6 mm. The resulting film has no seams and is quite elastic.
It is used for external and internal waterproofing. With the help of paint materials, it is possible to deal with cracks in the walls, their crumbling and erosion. Also, waterproofing the room from the inside can easily be provided with similar mastics. For example, painting the floor and walls of the bathroom will protect against flooding of neighbours and the destruction of the material of the walls.
Materials: bituminous mastics with various additives from talc, asbestos, as well as mastics based on synthetic resins.
Simple, cheap, fast, special material skills are not required. The coating is abrasion resistant and vapours permeable.
Durability - lasts about 5-6 years.
Sprayable liquid waterproofing
Water-based polymer-bitumen emulsion spraying is also called “liquid rubber”. One-component and two-component compositions are applied using special equipment in a mechanized way - by spraying.
Sometimes liquid rubber is used to waterproof basements from the inside, but this is wrong. Please note - liquid rubber is not able to withstand the negative pressure of water, it just comes off the base. Therefore, spraying it in the basement is simply a waste of money. If the water pressure is positive, such as on the roof, then you can safely use this material.
When spraying the liquid rubber fills even the smallest pores, creating a tight coating. The surface is processed quickly due to the mechanization of work.
A temperature of at least +5 ° C is required.
The coating is prone to punctures.
Before application, the surface of the substrate must be dry and not frozen.
Strong winds make spraying difficult. Work must be done in calm weather.
Complex relief requires a greater consumption of material, which leads to a general rise in price.
Work can only be performed by specialists.
Special expensive equipment is required.
If the storage conditions of liquid rubber were not met, for example, it was frozen in a warehouse, and then the molecules will not "sinter", a porous pancake will turn out on the surface of the base, which simply will not fulfil its functions.
It is possible to use only outside
Waterproofing is a must for your house and buildings as it avoids the harm to the structures from moisture and water content.